Thursday, March 12, 2020

Valley of the Kings essays

Valley of the Kings essays For the Ancient Egyptians the west was the way to the kingdom where the death could enter. This place was for them the Valley of the Kings. It was the place where the royal people wanted to be. The Valley of the Kings is a wonderful world to be discovered. The Valley of the Kings was a burial place. It was used by Egyptian rulers of the New Kingdom period. It was where the kings were buried. The Egyptians buried the kings along with their most important things. The objects were jewelry, pots and lots of more The Valley of the Kings is located on the West bank of the Nile opposite to the northern town of Luxor. Although only a few kms. West of the River bank. High cliffs and a long narrow entrance hide the Valley of the Kings. It is south of Thebas. It now has ways of communication which it didnt have before. The mountain of Thebas, at the far end of the Valley forms a natural pyramid both in shape and in use. It contains sixty or more tombs. Many tombs had to be changed of place several times because they used to be robbed. Egyptians would change their places The Valley of the Kings also recieved in ancient times the name of the Place of the Truth and the Valley of the Kings Biban el-Muluk.The first tomb discovered was the one of Seti the 1st. The Italian discoverer G. B. Belzoni found it in 1817. It has a very complicated construction. It has a lot of stairs and galleries as well as pillars. In one there was a sarcophagus of the pharaos without the mummy. The last tomb discovered in 1922 was the one of Tutankhamon. Howard Carter found it on Nov. 4, 1922. Great amounts of treasures were found. There were so well hidden that thieves couldn't find them. It's not a luxory tomb. The sarcophagus is one of the prettiest. ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Money launderindg and terrorism financing Essay

Money launderindg and terrorism financing - Essay Example From the process of establishing an anti-money laundering enforcement initiative, there comes out the counter-terrorism financial enforcement regime. Separating terrorists from their money is undeniably a critical component of the war on terrorism. As many now more fully appreciate, attacks like those of September 11 necessitate money to construct and maintain terrorist training camps, to buy weapons, communications equipment, and forged documents, to move personnel and materiel, to bribe government officials and establish front companies, and to pay for operatives' rent, food, and other basic necessities, along with special activities like flying lessons. More often than not, the terrorist money trail originates or leads overseas. For the purpose of stemming the tide to transnational crime, governments and international organizations continued their active efforts to increase regulatory and criminal enforcement of various laws in 1998. Such efforts were reflected in the criminalization of business and financial transactions, the imposition of new due diligence measures on the private sector and the concomitant weakening of privacy and confidentiality laws, strengthened penalties for non-compliance with regulatory efforts, and new law enforcement techniques (undercover sting operations, wiretapping, expanded powers to search homes and businesses, and controlled deliveries (Zagaris 1999). Transnational crimes involve money laundering which weaken economies and destabilize governments that are blamed on crime cartels, tax havens, and new techniques like cyber laundering. Though some would claim that it is not always a crime and immoral (Morris-Cotterill 2001), by definition alone, money laundering involves hiding, moving, and investing the proceeds of criminal conduct. In such a case, legal money can even become illegal if by moving it violates a country's foreign-exchange controls or other financial regulations. Correspondingly, all foreign-exchange transactions out of a certain country must be reported to their respective central bank otherwise the exported money becomes illegal. International Human Rights Protection Throughout the world, proactive policing has produced transformations in international criminal cooperation law particularly in the development of a financial enforcement regime. As a result of the September 11 terror attack, the United States and the European Union formed a close cooperation in cutting off terrorists from their sources of funding. It includes the issuance of blocking assets of 21 identified people as members of the Basque group ETA. The collaboration between the EU and US symbolizes a new and extremely important chapter in the financial war against terrorism (as cited in Dettmer 2002). The seizing of assets to the identified terrorists is considered a crucial element in any long-term operations in taking down Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network along with other terrorist groups. This effort of collaboration also strengthen the protection of human rights to both parties from another potential terror attack. After the September 11 Following the fateful terrorist attack on September 11 is the tracking down of terrorists that lead to a search for the means of uncovering the

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Sexual selection - Then and Now Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sexual selection - Then and Now - Essay Example highest number of young ones to inherit their superiority while those that protect or nourish their young and will leave their young ones to inherit weak powers (Darwin 1882, p209). The males’ modifications are generally more than the female. The male is more modified and the female almost retains a close similarity to the young of her species and the other adult members of similar group. The male is usually more eager than the female and in most cases it is the male that pursues the female and displays plumage characteristics (Darwin 1882, p221). The male’s great vigour during the love season tends to frequently intensify the individual’s colours that are entirely different from those of the female (Darwin 1882, p224). For example, most of the birds that inhabit the northern and the southern United States, the bird specimens that come from the south are dark in colour in comparison to the ones from the north. This is attributed to the direct differences in the light, temperature and other factors of the two geographical regions. The males of Ageloeus phoeniceus have their colours more intensified while in the south and the females of Cardinalis virginianus are the ones affected. In the species of Quiscalus major, the colour of the male remains uniform while the female have variations in the tint (Darwin 1882, p225). There are isolated cases where the females have pronounced sexual characters such as great size, brighter colours, pugnacity and strength. In the birds, there can be a complete transposition of the normal characters that are proper to each of the sex. In such a case, the females become more fervent in courtship and the males remain passive. Although the males are passive, they perform the role of selecting the most attractive females. There are certain hen birds that are highly ornamented and more pugnacious and powerful than the cocks; these types of characters are transmitted to the female progeny alone (Darwin 1882, p225). Double process

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Using Facebook to Cultivate Political Awareness Among Singapore Youth Essay Example for Free

Using Facebook to Cultivate Political Awareness Among Singapore Youth Essay Political awareness refers to the recognition and acquisition of either theoretical or practical political knowledge for our discussion. As the main purpose to cultivate political awareness is to help young voters make informed decisions during various elections, only information related to ‘civics’, that is â€Å"the study of the government with the attention of the roles of citizens† (Hebe, 1967), is considered political knowledge in this paper. We believe that political awareness should be raised for youths of age 13 21; thirteen is the age when most teenagers start acquiring maturity of judgement (Smith amp; Handler, 2007) and 21 is when they acquire the legal right to vote. Young voters should then possess sufficient political awareness to make wiser decisions when casting their votes. Social media is widely recognized as a form of online media that makes communication more interactive. Social media allows users to create and share contents for purposes like social networking through the use of Internet-based applications. Online social-networking refers to the use of websites such as Facebook and Twitter which provides social-networking services (SNS) for users to communicate, share information and maintain online social relations. A recent Singapore study (Russel, 2011) reveals that Facebook, a representative example of SNS, is the third most popular online source for election news and updates after Yahoo and Channel News Asia. There are 2,589,600 users on Facebook, making up half of Singapore’s total population. 1. 2. Current Situation The low political awareness among the youth in Singapore has been a long-existing problem. â€Å"I don’t know and I don’t care†, a typical Singaporean response implies the causes of the problem. One of the reasons that the youth do not gain enough political knowledge is because of the lack of engaging and interactive platforms for information sharing. As a result, few youths are interested, in addition to their poor knowledge in politics. It is important to tackle their disinterest and cultivate political awareness by disseminating related information on engaging and interactive platforms. According to a recent survey by Straits Times, 36. 3% of Singaporeans prefer Internet as their source of local political news. 33% of Singaporean Facebook users are the youths aged 13 – 24 (â€Å"Facebook Statistics Singapore†, 2011), as shown in figure 1. Therein hints the great potential of Facebook at disseminating information to the youth. In the following section, we will further evaluate the level of success of our recommendations using Facebook as a tool of information dissemination. Aged 13-24: 33% Aged 25-44:49% Others:18% Figure 1 User Age Distribution on Facebook in Singapore 1. 2. 1 Case Study: Use of Twitter in South Korea The South Korean political culture had been centered on Confucianism and subjected to bureaucratic-authoritarian rules, resulting in the struggle to cultivate a participant political culture. In fact, studies (Hong, 1998) revealed that majority of South Koreans (52. 7%) are unwilling to engage in politics. Despite the reluctance to be involved in politics, parliamentary elections held on June 2010 had held the highest voter-turnout since 1995 (54. %). A great percentage of this increase is attributed to the increase in young voters, aged 20 – 40, who are largely influenced through SNS. Twitter had played a relatively major role in bringing the Korean’s attentions to voting. A group of politically-aware youths had urged the Korean community to vote, mostly via Twitter. The result: more people saw the reminders and did as urged. The factors to success in garnering votes (especially among youths) are as goes: i. The increasing number of people with smartphones increases the convenience of using Twitter to share information on the go, via these mobile devices ii. Koreans followed the trend of using Twitter to connect with politics started by Barack Obama, President of the United States 1. 2. 2 Comparing Twitter in South Korea and Facebook in Singapore The choice of featuring South Korea in the case study is reasoned by the similarities between South Korea and Singapore, and Twitter and Facebook. A high level of similarities would hence ensure greater chance of success in our recommendations. Political culture reflects the mindsets of the youth regarding political issues, hence is a pivotal determinant in the success of promoting political awareness among the youth. South Korea tends to a subject political culture, while that in Singapore tends to a mid subject-parochial one. The features of both cultures basically demonstrates some inactivity and lack of initiative towards political issues, hence are largely similar. The ubiquity of Twitter and Facebook respectively in South Korea and Singapore is another deterministic factor. Twitter is widely used among South Koreans, resulting in an efficient spread of message to raise voter-turnout. Facebook is, likewise, widely used among the Singaporean youth, which could lead to a similar level of efficiency in spreading political awareness. The features of Twitter and Facebook would also affect how users receive political information, likewise influencing the level of efficiency of spreading political awareness among the Singaporean youth.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Humanism :: essays research papers

Humanism The word â€Å"humanism† has a number of meanings, and because there are so many different meanings it can be quite confusing if you don't know what kind of humanism someone is talking about. Literary Humanism is a devotion to the humanities or literary culture. Renaissance Humanism is the spirit of learning that developed at the end of the middle ages with the revival of classical letters and a renewed confidence in the ability of human beings to determine for themselves truth and falsehood. Cultural Humanism is the rational and empirical tradition that originated largely in ancient Greece and Rome, evolved through out European history, and now constitutes a basic part of the Western approach to science, political theory, ethics, and law. Philosophical Humanism is any outlook or way of life centered on human need and interest. Sub categories of this type include the two following. Christian Humanism is defined by Webster's Third New International Dictionary as â€Å"a philosophy advocating the self fulfillment of man within the framework of Christian principles.† This more human oriented faith is largely a product of the Renaissance and is a part of what made up Renaissance humanism. Modern Humanism, also called Naturalistic Humanism, Scien- tific Humanism, Ethical Humanism and Democratic Humanism is defined by one of its leading proponents, Corollas Lamont, as â€Å"a naturalistic philosophy that rejects all supernaturalism and relies primarily upon reason and science, democracy and human compassion.† Modern Humanism has a dual origin, both secular and religious, and these constitute its sub categories. Secular Humanism is an outgrowth of 18th century enlightenment rationalism and 19th century freethought. Many secular groups, such as the Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism and the American Rationalist Federation, and many otherwise unaffiliated academic philosophers and scientists advocate this philosophy. Religious Humanism emerged out of Ethical Culture, Unitarianism, and Universalism. Today, many Unitarian- Universalist congregations and all Ethical Culture societies describe themselves as humanist in the modern sense. The most critical irony in dealing with Modern Humanism is the inability of its supporters to agree on whether or not this world veiw is religious. The Secular Humanists believe it is a philosophy, where the Religious Humanists obviously believe it is a religion. This has been going on since the early years of the century where the Secular and Religious traditions combined and made Modern Humanism. Secular and Religious Humanists both share the same world views as shown by the signing of the Humanist Manifestos I and II. The signers of the Manifestos were both Secular and Religious Humanists. To serve personal needs, Religious Humanism offers a basis for moral values, an inspiring set of ideals , methods for dealing with life's harsher realities, a

Monday, January 13, 2020

Innovation in Edu. Sys and Exam Reforms Essay

Introduction As it is a human nature to think about verity in each and everything in our life. Being a human it’s our joy to thing on this matter. We have changed our life style also according to our comfort. As the generation is growing it is necessary to do according innovation in education also so our coming cohort shall continue acquiring through education. As we commemorate our past people use to go to the guru for knowledge and learn the skills and activities from him. But at that time it is strongly believed if the person who is belonging from the respective field will continue with that only after the completion of his school. We can say the child of king will be a king after his father, a child of farmer will be the farmer, child of tailor will be a tailor etc. After the arrival of British rule (1700 Ad) on India the whole system got changed drastically. Now whatever we are learning is under the education system of western culture. We will discuss it in quiet deep in the project. As our work is not ending over here we have putted effort in the examination reform also. The present system of examination encourages the habit of cramming. Now a day we are even able to give and take examinations online through satellite and with the help of internet. We will discuss this topic more deeply in the project. Innovation in Education system Education system:- For India to get transformed into a developed nation in 2020.Education is an important component. Our education policy should ensure that India is transformed into a developed nation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Good teachers could generate  enlightened minds and instill confidence and will power in students to help them realize their dreams. It is important to ensure that teachers will provided with all facilities so that they can impart proper teaching to students. Importance of Education:- Education is one of the most important factors in achieving the developmental goals of the country. It is an investment in the human resources. If the fruits of education have to reach the common man, it must be adequately and properly administered. In the present age of science and technology, it has been increasingly realized that one needs to be educated not only to become a better man and better social being. Education has come to be recognized as the main instrument of socio economic changes. That is why it has been rightly said that the destiny of a nation is shaped by quantity and quality of students coming out of schools and colleges. A New trend In Education:- E-Learning fosters independent learning. The use of E-Learning in educational activities in various fields has introduced new methods to enhance and transform teaching and learning. E-Learning provides individualized attention to the students. Internet and a vast array of digital resources and content are used for the purpose. E-Learning provides vast information required for independent learning to students which otherwise is not available in the traditional facilities of classroom. E-Learning increased the quality of teaching, learning in the form of vast resources available to them. Independent learners can now learn differently according to the difference they possess. In underdeveloped countries-learning can raise the level of education, literacy and economic development. This is especially true for countries where technical education is expensive, opportunities are limited, and economic disparities exist. The biggest advantage of e-learning lies in its ability to cover distances. For an organization that is spread across multiple locations, traditional  training becomes a constraint. All trainees need to come to a classroom to get trained. Additionally, the trainee’s learning pace is not addressed as all trainees are treated as having equal abilities and there is little flexibility in terms of timing and completion of the course. Ways of teaching and learning:- Curriculum: Fundamental modifications to the curriculum often took the forefront and corresponded mostly to the challenge of catering for individual learning needs. The key words were â€Å"openness† and â€Å"flexibility†. People wanted a more open, broader curriculum providing flexibility so as to give real choices. Development of teachers: Suggestions for changes in the development of teachers mainly responded to the Challenge about training and providing support for school staff. Key concepts here were collaboration, professionalism and experimentation. Creating and managing flexibility: Once again, as with many of the points raised here, the question of creating and managing flexibility was linked to the challenge of catering for individual learning needs. Flexibility was seen in terms of time, place and learning content. Other changes: Amongst the other changes proposed, areas covered included: the provision of resources for disadvantaged areas; broadening the range of learning resources and providing access outside school via various devices; opening school, as a privileged place of learning, to the local community, to industry and to the wider world; developing distributed leadership with greater autonomy for head teachers who should take the lead in teacher development; qualitative research to explore the learning process and results of these experimental practices initiated in teacher training courses. Role of ICT in Innovation:- ICT is put to in seeking to change education. ICT is seen as a vehicle for Collaboration and contact with others at any time and place, enabling, for example, communication between parents and authorities. ICT is also seen to extend both the scope of communication but also the role of students, enabling them to collaborate and communicate with learning partners and become decision-makers in their own learning. Tools such as blogs, wikis and pod/video casting are proposed to support flexibility by working online  and making communication, edition and publishing easy across the world. ICT is also seen to encourage and help teachers by providing dynamic, easily accessible guidance and communication resources whereby they can find support and communicate with coaches and colleagues. Finally, several people pointed to the increasing use of ICT to support social networks and the potential use of these for learning. Challenges to be addressed:- Disconnect between skills provided and skills required by the industry Revision of course curricula lags behind the need of the industry Out-dated machinery/ tools and technology Skill demand of Services/ Unorganized Sector are largely unmet Unsatisfactory employability of trainees because of poor quality of training Shortage of trained instructors and low instructor training capacity in the country Low prestige attached to vocational training Critics to our education Indian Education is although cheap in the world but still a common man today in our country cannot send his ward to a good institute. Examination schedule::we will study for almost 1 year (7 months in engineering). The problem is our paper wills evacuate by a lecturer with in 1 minute, because he will get more money by correcting more papers. Grading of on student is given by calculating the marks obtained in exam which is evaluated in less than 1 minute. I think it is not correct that the of already stated concepts or formulas in text book has to rote students and copy it in exam to get marks in exam. Of course, it’s important to know it. But his capability can judge by his research done on it, his opinions, ideas based on concept what is in text book. Our syllabus will not update forever. In our society it is believed, that who got high percentage, they are super brilliants. I think second class, third class grades in engineering should cancel. Because nearly half of the students in colleges belong to that category,  which is not eligible to so many companies, some government jobs, and the most society will see them as losers. HE confidence will totally smash by experiencing these situations. Examination reforms Introduction to Education Reforms Our entire education system is centered on examinations. Evaluation means to conduct the examination and to give marks and ranks to students. Student’s knowledge is often limited to by hearting and reproducing the same in the examinations. There is no uniformity in evaluation. Different types of evaluation systems are prevailing in different Boards i.e. Government, ICSE, CBSE etc. There is no flexibility in the conducting of tests. It is rigid Board examinations are only helping in classifying students as meritorious and slow- learners i.e. in turn pass/ fail this leads to unhealthy discrimination. The tests and examinations conducted at present are only testing the memory power of the students; they are not measuring the higher order skills of learning. The examinations are mechanical Correcting and posting of marks is done routinely. There is no scope for remedial teaching and testing to know how far a student is lagging behind. Examinations are not helping in assessing the all-round development of the student that is co- curriculum social personal qualities and health status and also they are not helping to testing their level of competency. Reforms proposed in the examination system To follow what is espoused in RTE 2009. Evaluation should have a broader framework and it should not be limited to examinations alone. Exams should include student’s displays, projects, seminars, collection of information and reports. The examinations should not create fear or stress to the student Evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive and it should be the part and parcel of daily teaching learning process. It should not restrict to rote – memory. When construction of knowledge becomes primary in curriculum the evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive i.e. along with the teaching – learning process. The assessment should be based on day  to day activities. The examinations should not be restricted / limited to writing but extended to assessment tools like observation, discussion, note- taking / recording, collection of opinions etc. the assessment should not only be teacher – based but also on peer groups, parents and other. The day to day teaching learning process depends on the experiences of the children. So student’s participation should be there in this teaching – learning process. Their knowledge, understanding and their application skills should be assessed. Therefore the teachers can record this information in their teachers’ dairies and manuals. There should be co- ordination among learning evaluation and objectives. Students note books, their written exhibits and all their other objects should be treated as assessment tools. For self- evaluation of students, quality remarks check – list should be utilized. There is no need to test all the teaching items taught in the classroom. But only some important items must be checked comprehensively at random. After evaluation action plan should be prepared for improvement of the child. Reforms suggested in examinations Examinations are a part of evaluation system. Instead of 3terminal examinations, 2 should be conducted. A test is to be conducted after completion of every unit. The most important item in the test is the nature of questions. They should be above the level of rote- learning. The open – ended questions which allow the students to think and write and express their views on their own should be given importance. To evaluate these questions the indicators should be prepared. Entrance examinations and Board examinations are to be abolished. Teachers are to be encouraged to prepare their own question – papers to conduct examinations. In –service training programmes should conduct for teachers to develop their ability to make question papers innovatively. They must be given adequate skills to prepare Question – Banks. Open book system is to be introduced for languages and social studies. The same test paper is to be used after re – teaching and relearning for slow –learners /non achiever. Evaluation in co- curricular activities like art and games The tools/techniques like rating scales, checklists, observation techniques, interviews are to be used to assess the co-curricular activities like physical education, social, personal qualities, art, games, health and sports. The same things should be recorded in the progress reports of the students through grades. The school-implemented activities like wall- magazines, student dairies and teacher dairies and teacher dairies are also to be evaluated. After conducting the examinations the students progress is to be communicated to their parents as per the RTE Act 2009 children’s’ progress and achievement should also be displayed online.  The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in consultation with the Ministry of Human Resource Development and keeping in view the spirit of National Policy of Education, 1986 has decided to introduce the following education reforms:- There will be no class X Board examination i.e. 2011 for students studying CBSE’s Senior Secondary Schools and who do not wish to move out of the CBSE system after Class X. The students studying in CBSE’s Secondary Schools will, however, be required to appear in Board’s external examination because they will be leaving the Secondary School after Class X. The Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation has been strengthened in all CBSE affiliated schools i.e. October, 2009 in Class IX. The new Grading System has been introduced at Secondary School Level (for Class IX and X) effective from 2009-10 academic sessions. The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education Act 2009 has been enacted, which envisages significant reforms in the Elementary Education sector especially with reference to admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in schools which conform to specified norms and standards. Appropriate policy reforms in the higher education sector have also been undertaken, Section 6 of the Central Universities Act, 2009 provides for academic reforms in newly established Central Universities. The reforms are being extended to other Central Educational Institutions also. Exam reform: Why is it needed? Because Indian school board exams are largely inappropriate for the ‘knowledge society’ of the 21st century and its need for innovation problem-solvers. Because they do not serve the needs of social justice. Because the quality of question papers is low. They usually call for rote memorization and fail to test higher-order skills like reasoning and analysis, let alone lateral thinking, creativity, and judgment. Because they are inflexible. Based on a ‘one-size-fits-all’ principle, they make no allowance for different type of learners and learning environments. Because they induce an inordinate level of anxiety and stress. In addition to widespread trauma. Mass media and psychological counselors report a growing number of exam-induced suicides and nervous breakdowns. Because while a number of boards use good practices in pre-exam and exam management there remain several glaring shortfalls at several boards. Because there is often a lack of full disclosure and transparency in grading and mark/grade reporting. Because there is need for a functional and reliable system of school-based evaluation. Conclusion It should be clear from above that the system needs serious re-examining. Whatever changes taking place in the current system are desirable but not worthless. It should be spread over all the corner of the country not only to the metro and developed area. It is acceptable that the process is quite slow but the results are fruitful. We have seen that the advantage of development and innovation is not just limited to the learner but teachers also. So the changes implemented by the  government must be communicated well, If the fruit is hidden in leafs, then it is of no use. New trends in the learning process are too good for the new learners. Moreover, they are entertaining, attractive, expectations of every students, perfect for the one who want to learn, and helpful to the teachers also in holding the attention of students. New reforms in the examination are also one of the areas under the focus of education expansion and innovation. However, there are many critics in the minds of people but they are natural, whenever there is difficulty before the face of one s/he will try to criticize the parent of that problem. We are finding many new ways to reduce those critics by developing many new methods of examine the talent in our new generation. Moreover, that the new reforms in examination have given its contribution in saving strategy also. As the pattern of paper is so simple to solve out and check out too, by that it saves time, energy, and resources also. The concept of online examination is the best innovation in this field. Students can give exams without any long procedure of filling forms and submitting it. S the best example of it. Bibliography * Alan McCluskey Chairperson of EUN’s Policy and Innovation Committee Researcher at Did@ctics, Fribourg University Editor of Connected Magazine * Information was given by the Minister of State for Human Resource Development Smt. D. Purandeswari, in the Rajya Sabha. * (Source: National Council of Education Research and Training, Education Reforms 1.1 p. 1) * References: [1] Ren Changrong. Test mode for computer-related curriculum reform of [J]. Fujian computer, 2008 (2:186-187). [2] Jiang major Contemporary German vocational education and teaching the mainstream thinking of [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2007. [3] Jiang major. New Theory of Vocational Education research [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2007. [4] Xiao Kun, Luo Yongwu. Employment-oriented â€Å"recursive method† to build the vocational curriculum [J]. Vocational Education Forum, 2005 (18:29-30. [5] Connor. Vocational education feasibility test mode countermeasures [J]. Modern-commerce industry, 2009 (3:203-204.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

American Revolution Battle of Bunker Hill

The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Armies Commanders Americans Major General Israel PutnamColonel William Prescottapprox. 2,400-3,200 men British Lieutenant General Thomas GageMajor General William Howeapprox. 3,000 men Background Following the British retreat from the Battles of Lexington and Concord, American forces closed and laid siege to Boston. Trapped in the city, the British commander, Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, requested reinforcements to facilitate a breakout. On May 25, HMS Cerberus arrived at Boston carrying Major Generals William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne. As the garrison had been reinforced to around 6,000 men, the British generals began making plans to clear the Americans from the approaches to the city. To do so, they intended to first seize Dorchester Heights to the south. From this position, they would then attack the American defenses at Roxbury Neck. With this done, operations would shift north with British forces occupying the heights on the Charlestown Peninsula and marching on Cambridge. Their plan formulated, the British intended to attack on June 18. Across the lines, the American leadership received intelligence regarding Gages intentions on June 13. Assessing the threat, General Artemas Ward ordered Major General Israel Putnam to advance onto the Charlestown Peninsula and erect defenses atop Bunker Hill. Fortifying the Heights On the evening of June 16, Colonel William Prescott departed Cambridge with a force of 1,200 men. Crossing Charlestown Neck, they moved onto Bunker Hill. As work began on fortifications, discussion ensued between Putnam, Prescott, and their engineer, Captain Richard Gridley, regarding the site. Surveying the landscape, they decided that nearby Breeds Hill offered a better position. Halting work on Bunker Hill, Prescotts command advanced to Breeds and began working on a square redoubt measuring approximately 130 feet per side. Though spotted by British sentries, no action was taken to dislodge the Americans. Around 4:00 AM, HMS Lively (20 guns) opened fire on the new redoubt. Though this briefly halted the Americans, Livelys fire soon ceased on Vice Admiral Samuel Graves order. As the sun began to rise, Gage became fully aware of the developing situation. He immediately ordered Graves ships to bombard Breeds Hill, while British Army artillery joined in from Boston. This fire had little effect on Prescotts men. With the sun rising, the American commander quickly realized that the Breeds Hill position could be easily flanked to the north or west. The British Act Lacking the manpower to fully rectify this issue, he ordered his men to begin building a breastwork extending north from the redoubt. Meeting in Boston, the British generals debated their best course of action. While Clinton advocated for a strike against Charlestown Neck to cut off the Americans, he was vetoed by the other three who favored a direct attack against Breeds Hill. As Howe was senior among Gages subordinates, he was tasked with leading the assault. Crossing to the Charlestown Peninsula with around 1,500 men, Howe landed at Moultons Point on its eastern edge (Map). For the attack, Howe intended to drive around the colonial left flank while Colonel Robert Pigot feinted against the redoubt. Landing, Howe noticed additional American troops on Bunker Hill. Believing these to be reinforcements, he halted his force and requested additional men from Gage. Having witnessed the British preparing to attack, Prescott also requested reinforcements. These arrived in the form of Captain Thomas Knowltons men who were posted behind a rail fence on the American left. They were soon joined by troops from New Hampshire led by Colonels John Stark and James Reed. The British Attack With the American reinforcements extending their line north the Mystic River, Howes route around the left was blocked. Though additional Massachusetts troops reached the American lines before the start of the battle, Putnam struggled to organize additional troops in the rear. This was further complicated by fire from the British ships in the harbor. By 3:00 PM, Howe was ready to commence his attack. As Pigots men formed near Charlestown, they were harassed by American snipers. This led to Graves firing on the town and sending men ashore to burn it. Moving against Starks position along the river with light infantry and grenadiers, Howes men advanced in a line four deep. Under strict orders to hold their fire until the British were within close range, Starks men unleashed deadly volleys into the enemy. Their fire caused the British advance to falter and then fall back after taking heavy losses. Seeing Howes attack collapse, Pigot also retired (Map). Re-forming, Howe ordered Pigot to assault the redoubt while he advanced against the rail fence. As with the first assault, these were repulsed with severe casualties (Map). While Prescotts troops were having success, Putnam continued to have issues in the American rear with only a trickle of men and material reaching the front. Again re-forming, Howe was reinforced with additional men from Boston and ordered a third attack. This was to focus on the redoubt while a demonstration was made against the American left. Attacking up the hill, the British came under heavy fire from Prescotts men. During the advance, Major John Pitcairn, who had played a key role at Lexington, was killed. The tide turned when the defenders ran out of ammunition. As the battle devolved into hand-to-hand combat, the bayonet-equipped British quickly seized the upper hand (Map). Taking control of the redoubt, they compelled Stark and Knowlton to fall back. While the bulk of the American forces fell back in haste, Stark and Knowltons commands retreated in a controlled fashion which bought time for their comrades. Though Putnam attempted to rally troops on Bunker Hill, this ultimately failed and the Americans retreated back across Charlestown Neck to fortified positions around Cambridge. During the retreat, the popular Patriot leader Joseph Warren was killed. A newly appointed major general but lacking in military experience, he had declined command during the battle and volunteered to fight as infantry. By 5:00 PM the fighting had ended with the British in possession of the heights. Aftermath The Battle of Bunker Hill cost the Americans 115 killed, 305 wounded, and 30 captured. For the British the butchers bill was an immense 226 killed and 828 wounded for a total of 1,054. Though a British victory, the Battle of Bunker Hill did not change the strategic situation around Boston. Rather, the high cost of the victory sparked debate in London and startled the military. The high number of casualties sustained also contributed to Gages dismissal from command. Appointed to replace Gage, Howe would be haunted by the specter of Bunker Hill in subsequent campaigns as its carnage affected his decision making. Commenting on the battle in his diary, Clinton wrote, A few more such victories would have shortly put an end to British dominion in America. Selected Sources British Battles: Battle of Bunker HillMassachusetts Historical Society: Battle of Bunker HillSymonds, Craig (1986). A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution. Baltimore, MD: The Nautical Aviation Publishing Company of America.